Ph.D. - U.S. diplomatic history, University of Texas, 1980
M.A. - History, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1971
B.A. - History, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1970 Professional Positions The Cato Institute
Senior Fellow, 2011-Present
Vice President, Defense and Foreign Policy Studies, 1996-present
Director of Foreign Policy Studies, 1987-1996
Foreign Policy Analyst, 1985-87
Professional Management Resources, Inc.
Director of Policy Alternatives Project, 1983-85
The University of Texas
Research Associate with the Ideas and Action Project, directed by former national security adviser Walt W. Rostow, 1980-83
Publications (Partial List)
Perilous Partners: The Benefits and Pitfalls of America’s Alliances with Authoritarian Regimes, coauthor with Malou Innocent (Washington: Cato Institute, forthcoming September 2015)
The Fire Next Door: Mexico's Drug Violence and the Danger to America (Washington: Cato Institute, 2012).
Smart Power: Toward a Prudent Foreign Policy for America (Washington: Cato
America’s Coming War with China: A Collision Course
over Taiwan (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2006).
The Korean Conundrum:
America’s Troubled Relations with North and South Korea, coauthor, (New York:
Bad Neighbor Policy: Washington’s Futile War on
Drugs in Latin America (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2003).
Freedom: Foreign Policy for a Constitutional Republic (Washington: Cato
The Captive Press: Foreign Policy Crises and the First
Amendment (Washington: Cato Institute, 1995).
Beyond NATO: Staying Out of
Europe's Wars (Washington: Cato Institute, 1994).
A Search for Enemies:
America's Alliances after the Cold War (Washington: Cato Institute, 1992).
Books -- Editor
INATO Enters the 21st Century (London: Frank Cass Ltd. 2001).
Future: Constructive Partner or Emerging Threat? co-editor, (Washington: Cato
NATO's Empty Victory: A Postmortem on the Balkan War
(Washington: Cato Institute, 2000).
NATO Enlargement: Illusions and
Reality, co-editor, (Washington: Cato Institute, 1998).
of Grandeur: The United Nations and Global Intervention(Washington: Cato
The Future of NATO (London: Frank Cass, Ltd.,
The U.S.-South Korean Alliance: Time for a Change, co-editor,
(New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1992).
America Entangled: The Persian
Gulf Crisis and Its Consequences (Washington: Cato Institute,
NATO at 40: Confronting a Changing World (Lexington, MA:
Lexington Books, 1990).
Collective Defense or Strategic Independence?:
Alternative Strategies for the Future (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989).
The Dissenters: American Isolationists and Foreign Policy, 1945-1954,
University of Texas, 1980 (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1981).
“The Drug War’s Damaging Impact on Mexico and Its Neighbors,” in Marten W. Brienen and Jonathan D. Rosen, eds. New Approaches to Drug Policies: Time for a Change (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).
“Competing Models: International Initiatives and the War on Drugs,” in Roberto Zepeda and Jonathan D. Rosen, eds. Cooperation and Drug Policies in the Americas: Trends in the Twenty-First Century (Boston: Lexington Books, 2015).
“The Balkan Wars of the 1990s,” in Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History, 2012, ed., Timothy J. Lynch, et al (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.)
“Cyprus and the Obama Administration: Good News and Bad News,” in Cyprus 35 Years Later: What Is Needed for a Solution? ed. Eugene T. Rossides (Washington: American Hellenic Institute Foundation, 2010.)
"Decision-Making Authority Is in Ankara; U.S. and EU Have Roles to Play," in Cyprus 35 Years Later: What Is Needed for a Solution? ed. Eugene T. Rossides (Washington: American Hellenic Institute Foundation, 2010.)
"Cyprus and the Obama Administration: Good News and Bad News," in Cyprus 35 Years Later: What Is Needed for a Solution? ed. Eugene T. Rossides (Washington: American Hellenic Institute Foundation, 2010."“The Great Powers and the Security Council,” in Reinventing the United Nations, eds. Ajit M. Banerjee and Murari R. Sharma (New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 2007).
“Democracy and War,” in Opposing the Crusader State: Alternatives to Global Interventionism, eds. Robert Higgs and Carl P. Close (Oakland, Independent Institute, 2007).
“Dealing with a Resurgent China,” in China Cross Talk: The American Debate over China Policy since Normalization, ed. Scott Kennedy (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).
“Kosovo and Cyprus: The U.S. Double Standard,” in The United States & Cyprus: Double Standards and the Rule of Law, eds. Eugene T. Rossides and Van Coufoudakis (Washington: American Hellenic Institute Foundation, 2002).
“High-Handed Nation Building: The West Brings ‘Democracy’ to Bosnia,” in Exiting the Balkan Thicket, ed. Gary T. Dempsey (Washington: Cato Institute, 2002).
“NATO’s Search for Relevance,” in NATO after Fifty Years, eds. S. Victor Papacosma, Sean Kay, and Mark R. Rubin (Wilmington, Del: SR Books, 2001).
“Collateral Damage: The Wide-Ranging Consequences of America’s Drug War,” in After Prohibition: An Adult Approach to Drug Policies in the 21st Century, ed. Timothy Lynch (Washington: Cato Institute, 2000).
“America’s Stance Toward Europe: Moving Away from a NATO-Centered Policy,” in The Future of the American Military Presence in Europe, ed. Lloyd J. Matthews (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2000).
"The Amorphous 'New NATO' and America's Real European Interests," in NATO at Fifty: Perspectives on the Future of the Atlantic Alliance, ed. Susan Eisenhower (Washington: Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1999).
"Eagle in the China Shop: The Economic Consequences of U.S. Global Meddling," in Economic Casualties: How U.S. Foreign Policy Undermines Trade, Growth, and Liberty, eds. Solveig Singleton and Daniel T. Griswold (Washington: Cato Institute, 1999).
"From Intervenor of First Resort to Balancer of Last Resort," in Asia After the Miracle: Redefining U.S. Economic and Security Priorities, eds. Selig S. Harrison and Clyde V. Prestowitz Jr (Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1998).
"Trade and the Troubled U.S.-China Relationship," in China in the New Millennium: Market Reforms and Social Development, ed. James A. Dorn (Washington: Cato Institute, 1998).
"Ending the International Drug War," in How to Legalize Drugs, ed. Jefferson M. Fish (London: Jason Aronson, 1998).
"Wishful Thinking and Strategic Evasions: The Campaign for NATO Enlargement," in NATO and the Quest for Post-Cold War Security, ed. Clay Clemons (New York: Macmillan, 1997).
"Learning to Live with Nuclear Proliferation," in Market Liberalism: A Paradigm for the 21st Century, eds. David Boaz and Edward H. Crane (Washington: Cato Institute, 1993).
"Direct Military Intervention," in Intervention into the 1990s:U.S. Foreign Policy in the Third World, ed. Peter J. Schraeder (Boulder, CO.: Lynne Rienner, 1992).
"The U.S. Should Reduce Its Military Role," in The New World Order: Opposing Viewpoints, ed. Matthew Polesetsky (San Diego: Greenhaven, 1991).
"An Independent Course," in America's Purpose, ed. Owen Harries (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1991).
"China and America in a Changing World Order," in Economic Reform in China: Problems & Prospects, eds. James Dorn and Wang Xi (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
"America's China Policy: The Virtue of Patience," in U.S.-China Policy (Washington: International Security Council, 1990).
"Overt Military Intervention," in Intervention in the 1980s: U.S. Foreign Policy in the Third World, ed. Peter J. Schraeder (Boulder, CO.: Lynne Rienner, 1989).
"Beyond U.S. Paternalism: A New Security Strategy for the Pacific Basin," in An American Vision: Policies for the 90s, ed. Edward H. Crane and David Boaz (Washington: Cato Institute, 1989).
"Two Cheers for SDI," in Assessing the Reagan Years, ed. David Boaz (Washington: Cato Institute, 1988).
Journal Articles and Published Studies
“Designer Drugs: A New, Futile Front in the War against Illegal Drugs,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis, no. 774, May 27, 2015.
“A Trenchant Yet Flawed Analysis of American Foreign Policy,” Law and Liberty, September 12, 2014.
“Delusions of Indispensability,” National Interest 124 (March-April, 2013).
“Tangled Web: The Syrian Civil War and Its Implications,” Mediterranean Quarterly 24, No. 1 (Winter 2013).
“Mexico as Seen from Washington,” Aspenia (Winter 2012-2013).
“Obama Provokes Beijing,” Limes: A Journal of Geopolitics 6 (November-December, 2012).
"Drug War Mayhem Moves South," National Interest, 117 (January-February, 2012).
Undermining Mexico’s Dangerous Drug Cartels," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 688, November 15, 2011.
"Cynical Myths and U.S. Military Crusades in the Balkans," Mediterranean Quarterly, 22, no.3 (Summer 2011).
"Time to Reconsider Partition for Bosnia," European Affairs (February 2011).
"Estrangement: The United States and Turkey in a Multi-Polar Era," Mediterranean Quarterly, 21, no. 4 (Fall 2010).
"The Pentagon’s View of China," Aspenia no. 50 (Fall 2010).
"Plan B for Dealing with North Korea," Policy 26, no. 2 (Winter 2010).
"Middle East Vortex: An Unstable Iraq and Its Implications for the Region," Mediterranean Quarterly, 20, no.4 (Fall 2009)
"The 'Peaceful Rise' of China," Aspenia no. 46 (Fall 2009).
"Escaping the 'Graveyard of Empires': A Strategy to Exit Afghanistan," Cato Institute White Paper, September 2009. (Co-author with Malou Innocent.)
"NATO at 60: A Hollow Alliance," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no 635, March 30, 2009.
"Troubled Neighbor: Mexico's Drug Violence Poses a Threat to the United States," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 631, February 2, 2009.
The Rise of Asia," Aspenia 43 (Fall 2008).
“A New Era of Turbulence in the Balkans?” Mediterranean Quarterly 19, no 3 (Summer 2008).
Staying Alive: Twilight States in the International System, National Interest 94 (March-April 2008).
“Wild Card: A Democratic Taiwan,” China Security, 4, no.1 (Winter 2008).
“The Iraq War and Iranian Power,” (coauthor with Malou Innocent) Survival, 49, no. 4 (Winter 2007-2008).
“Escaping the Trap,” International Affairs 53, no. 4 (Fall 2007).
“Taiwan’s Defense Budget: How Taipei’s Free Riding Risks War,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 600, (September 13, 2007) (Coauthor with Justin Logan).
“Iraq and Vietnam: Some Unsettling Parallels,” Mediterranean Quarterly, 18, no. 3 (Summer 2007).
“Mexico’s Drug Trade,” Aspenia, 36, April 2007.
“Contra Iran: A View to a Coup?” (coauthor with Jessica P. Ashooh) National Interest, No. 88 (March-April 2007).
“Escaping the Trap: Why the United States Must Leave Iraq,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 588, February 14, 2007.
“Toward a Grand Bargain with Iran,” Mediterranean Quarterly, 18, no. 1 (Winter 2007).
“Great Expectations: Washington, Beijing, and the North Korean Nuclear Crisis,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 18, no. 4 (Winter 2006-2007).